As you can see, many scientists had long been thinking about, and trying to calculate, CO2's effect on climate. (If you have additional papers for this list, let me know.)
The canonical work disproving the claimed 1970's "consensus" on global cooling/new ice age is
"The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus"
W. Peterson et al, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1325–1337, 2008
If you haven't read Spencer Weart's work, you should -- and, if you can afford it, The Warming Papers by Pierrehumbert and Archer. Justin Gillis of the NYT reviewed the latter here.